How Galileo Galilei’s Discoveries Changed Science and the World?

Introduction 

Galileo Galilei formulated the Modern Science, as he appeared to be the originator of the actual and authentic scientific revolution. He followed Newton and Kepler and helped the modern science to take a giant leap as he was accountable for numerous solid accomplishments. They incorporate the telescope enhancements, the consequential astronomic observations and the sustenance of Copernicanism. In fact, Galileo is outlined as the father of modern science, physics, and modern observational astronomy. Galileo’s contributions to the observational astronomy were immense, making him one of the greatest scientists of all times, remarkable for his usage of the scientific method to understand how the Universe works. His discoveries laid foundations for probable alterations in mental models and mindsets. Furthermore, his discoveries challenged former theories and beliefs, held sacred by the Catholic Church and suggested by Aristotle. Thus, Galileo had solid influences both on the Renaissance and the modern world.  

Scientific Inventions and Discoveries in Physics and Mathematics

Galileo is a well-known innovative physicist, astronomer, philosopher, mathematician, and originator. The most remarkable achievements encompass telescope design enhancements providing possibility for greater magnification levels, resulting in consequent astronomic exploration and scientific kinematic discoveries. The scientific progress was restricted for marginally 1,200 years before Galileo. Nevertheless, his works helped in making solid breakthrough, allowing differentiating between the Modern and ancient Greek-Roman civilization science. Despite the fact that the Modern Science is based on the ancient science, it is characterized by numerous outstanding enhancements, encompassing the structured utilization of mathematics and experimentation. Thus, Galileo made his initial major discovery in 1602 by demonstrating that the pendulum period does not depend on the swing arc. This provided the fundamental basis for subsequent studies, encompassing the pendulum clock evolvement. In fact, Galileo originally studied medicine, but he stopped doing this initially due to pendulum obsession, as he urgently required understanding how they worked and which forces provoked them to swing with specific ordinate exactness. The facts revealed that Galileo became the professor of mathematics at the University of Padua in 1592, which allowed him to make additional contributions to mathematics and accurately calculate the optimal oars positioning in galleys by treating them as levers. The young scientist researched mathematics and physics of the ancient Greeks, including Aristotle and Euclid. Nonetheless, Galileo impeached Aristotle’s falling objects approach. Firstly, Aristotle was confident that a falling object speed demonstrated a tendency to increase with weight, while Galileo assumed that this did not match the reality and decided to test it. This is a reason why Galileo made several experiments outlining that different-weight balls rolling down reveal discrepant velocity, which is not connected with the actual weight of balls. Such experiments and their results shocked contemporary scientists, as Galileo’s methods appeared to be completely foreign and were regarded as undesirable, suspicious, and even dangerous innovations.

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Moreover, Galileo also understood the significance of the connections between theoretical and experimental physics and mathematics. This cognition is illustrated in his work on parabolas, in which Galileo asserted that the parabola was the perfect theoretic trajectory for evenly expedited object in flux without the friction force interventions. Furthermore, Galileo also comprehended theory restrictions as he was capable of appropriately speculating that the theory appeared as precise merely on laboratory scope with no possible application to planetary scope motion. Galileo also understood that experimentation and mathematical theory infrequently absolutely correlate. Galileo presents an innovative spirit of the new exploratory science, with its pioneering focus upon speculating mathematically concerning the world, admeasuring objects quantitatively, and subjecting all hypotheses to the Nature verdict. 

Scientific Inventions and Discoveries in Medicine

In addition, Galileo also had solid impact on medicine as well. Galileo’s genius provided basis for the progress and solution for specific medical issues. He appeared to be the genuine originator of the compound microscope. Galileo actually utilized the reversed principle of the telescope for exceedingly minor objects. There is no requirement to enhance the significance of the microscope to medical research. Galileo highlighted that the microscope had to be utilized in a solid light or even in a complete sunlight in order to illuminate objects as much as possible. Its usage stands in accordance with other Galileo’s inventions, as all of them attempt making science independent of different philosophical contemplations and to display and check the nature law through experiments. In addition, Galileo devised the primary air thermometer, which looked as a glass bulb conjugated to a lengthy glass stem. He warmed the bulb in his hands and positioned an open end in a vessel containing water or alcohol. The liquid instantly raised in the neck higher than a palm above the level of water in the vessel after withdrawing the heat from the bulb. The plausibility of demonstrating the temperatures in rigorous figures became highly significant for diseases diagnosing and progress evaluation. This provided doctors with a possibility to know the exact temperature of their patients and not vague sensations, measured by laying hand on a forehead. 

Scientific Inventions and Discoveries in Astronomy

Galileo’s initial veritable contribution to astronomy appeared in 1604, because of a new star appearance. In fact, the history shows that Aristotle claimed that the sky appeared to be ideal and constant, as if there was an alteration, then things would have to shift from a more ideal condition to a less ideal one or visa versa. The fact that the sky was entirely ideal exculpated that any alteration was unfeasible. This is a reason why Galileo utilized this innovative star appearance so as demonstrate that Aristotle’s convictions were erroneous. Nevertheless, astronomers of Galileo’s times doubtlessly acknowledged Aristotle’s space vision. Galileo’s believed that Aristotle could change his ideas, if he “were to see the new discoveries in the heavens, he would change his mind, revise his books, accept the more sensible doctrines”.  In fact, Galileo discarded earth-centered or geocentric perspective of the cosmos, and he accepted the beliefs of Copernicus. Copernicus demonstrated that a sun-centered or heliocentric world system could appropriately and easily predict and interpret future motions of the planets one century before Galileo birth. 

Another contribution to astronomy science and discoveries regards Galileo’s telescope. In fact, Galileo was passionate for precise observations and independent analysis. His passion turned even stronger via the utilization of telescope, which assisted him to understand that Copernicus was completely right. Nonetheless, this passion resulted in the fact that Galileo appeared in a conflict with the Roman Catholic Church. Galileo’s original telescope appeared to be a plumbed tube with lenses adjusted at each end of this tube. It could make things appear three times closer. Numerous attempts helped Galileo in constructing an implement of a superior caliber, which could magnify the view approximately 32 times. Nonetheless, Galileo did not dedicate attention to the terrestrial objects, paying more attention to space observations. All observations provoked an astronomical revolution, which did not end until Aristotle’s doctrines was overturned by an innovative cosmos system. The telescope obviously revolutionized astronomical observations through impacting the entire scientific methodology, which permitted executing more precise mathematical calculations. Galileo’s initial telescope could magnify objects 20 times. This helped him in studying the Moon. Galileo discovered that the Moon surface was ragged and not smooth, as had been supposed previously. In addition, he also discovered that Milky Way System incorporated different starts collection. Moreover, Galileo discovered that Jupiter had moons, examined Venus phases, detected Sun sports, and observed Saturn and supernova. All of this information assisted him in additionally attributing the fact that the cosmos was not ideal. 

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Sharp Contrasts and Dissensions with the Church

Galileo is also famous for his clashes and contradictions with the Catholic Church. In fact, Galileo appeared to be the first scientist who stated that human beings could actually comprehend how the world works, especially through observing the real world. Galileo immediately accredited Copernican theory, which claimed that the planets orbited the sun. However, only after actually observing cosmos and finding evidence necessary for supporting this idea, he began publicly supporting it. Moreover, Galileo wrote about Copernican’s theory in the Italian language and not typical academic Latin in order to make ideas widely supported outside the universities. These concepts aggravated Aristotelian professors, who conjoined together in the attempt of convincing the Catholic Church to forbid Copernicanism. In fact, Galileo traveled to Rome so that to debate with the ecclesiastical officials and quarreled that the Bible was not intended to stimulate scientific doctrines. In addition, he also debated that the Bible had to be accepted as allegorical due to the fact that it conflicted with the common sense. Nevertheless, the church was afraid of the scandal, which could disrupt its fight against Protestantism, announced Copernicanism to be fallacious in 1616, hence forcing Galileo never to advocate or retain Copernican’s doctrine. In fact, inquisition “forced Galileo under the threat of torture to recant his belief in Copernicus’s heliocentric system”. Nevertheless, Galileo completed and published Dialogue Concerning the Two Chief World Systems in 1632. This work immediately disseminated across Europe as a philosophical and literary masterpiece. Nevertheless, the pope comprehended that the readers were interpreting this masterpiece as a persuasive argument on behalf of Copernicanism, he forbade it even regardless the previous censors’ blessing. All of Galileo’s actions led to house arrest. Thus, Gaileo’s conflict with the Roman Catholic Church was not as simple as it is typically depicted. It actually represented a conflict between Copernican science and Aristotelian science, which had become a fundamental basis of the Church tradition. The initial problem stood for the fact that Aristotle’s science was outdating, even despite the fact that the church was seriously attached to it. It was a period when science was not appropriately distinguished or separated from philosophy. Therefore, if Aristotle’s ideas and beliefs could be assumed as incorrect, Christianity appeared to be inaccurate as well. Reformation stood as another groundwork factor in Galileo’s conflict with the Church. Due to the fact that the Protestant reformation and Martin Luther questioned Church authority, the Roman Church lost essential influence and power. This is a reason why it responded with a set of literature prohibited to Catholics, including any writings challenging traditional Scripture interpretations.

Conclusion

The paper vividly demonstrates that Galileo Galilei was one of those people who revolutionized the world. His contributions in physics, mathematics, medicine, and astrology did not merely regard simple inventions of telescope and microscope. They actually changed scientific methods, the whole course of history, laid the basis of the Modern science. Moreover, Galileo also appears to be a cultural icon and symbol of fighting for separation of science and religion, while demonstrating differences between individual freedom and institutional authority, between scientific research and political power or social responsibility.

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