Despite the fact that the common style of academic writing in Social Sciences may differ depending on targeted audience and framework of methodology, in most cases the main requirement of all college research papers is close attention and stylistic elements described below:

General picture

As opposed to journalistic and/or fictional writing, the academic writing structure needs to be logical and formal. Cohesion is also one of the main requirements in academic writing. In addition, structured ideas flow is welcomed. It means that in order to create a unified picture, one has to connect various ideas. That is why it is recommended to use links between the sentences so that the reader could easily perceive the content and understand the main argument. In the introduction, one has to provide a short description of the paper structure.

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Writing Tone

Writing tone describes the overall attitude presented in the paper. The writer’s task is to present points of other authors in a fair manner using the correct narrative style. In case you need to present an argument or point of view and you disagree with it, you have to accurately describe the point and/ or argument and avoid using biased or loaded language. Remember that it is expected that you will be able to investigate the problem under discussion from the authoritative perspective. However, you can use neutral language in order to describe the strong sides of your own argument. Avoid confrontation, please.

Diction while Writing

Diction is referred to the word choice in your paper. It is vital to be aware of the words you are going to use in the research paper. Note that there are words with the same denotation [definition in the dictionary] but with different connotation [implied meaning]. These issues should be taken into account during academic writing since terminology and words may evolve a nuanced meaning that can describe a certain concept, idea, and/or phenomenon, which originate from the culture of epistemological nature of the selected subject. Consequently, it is better to choose words with concrete meaning. In case you cannot avoid such situation, you have to provide the explanation of a particular word so as not to confuse your reader. In addition, it is advised to explain the way this particular word can be used in the discipline.

 Language Used in Academic Writing

Use of clear language is vital in academic writing. Properly organized paragraphs and easily to comprehend sentences help readers to clearly perceive the content and follow your thinking. Use formal, concise language and clearly describe what you mean. It is recommended to avoid long sentences that can confuse the reader and make the understanding of the meaning difficult. Do not use the following words: [“we,” “they,” “people,” “company,” etc.], abbreviations [“i.e,” “e.g.”], and contractions [“isn’t,” “haven’t,” etc.].

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Academic Writing Conventions

Proper citations and use of academic sources in research papers is an essential part of professional academic writing. In case you want to include someone else’s idea in your research paper it is vital to cite the source of the idea in order to avoid being blamed in stealing ideas from other authors. Proper citing of the sources helps the reader to easily identify the source used in the paper and verify all your conclusions and findings.Arguments Based on Evidence

Arguments Based on Evidence

Academic writing tasks require expressing your personal viewpoint on the research issue. However, in academic writing, it is important to base one’s opinion on clear and logical understanding of the problem; academic debates are always welcomed since they help to comprehend the research problem in detail. That is why, writer needs to provide evidence that supports his/her own opinion and this evidence must be taken from academic sources only. The argument should be logical and objective at the same time. The evidence quality will also help to determine how strong your argument is. The main challenge of the writer is to convince the target reader that your opinion is logical, coherent and documented. Such an approach is used when one has to provide recommendations to problem solution and offer an effective course of action.

Thesis-Driven Writing

All academic research papers should be driven by the thesis. It means that the beginning point is a certain idea, perspective or simply thesis that is used to the selected issue. In other words, the topic that lack clear research question cannot be considered academic writing.

Higher-Order and Complexity Thinking

The main objective of academic writing is to provide a description of complicated ideas in a clear manner. Academic writing required skills of higher-order thinking. They include the process of cognition that helps to understand, find solutions to the problems, and provide description of abstract notions.

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